Paragraf – ve dolayısı ile metin – analizi yapmak için, aşağıdaki sırayı izlemeniz yararlı olacaktır.
Genel anlam için tüm metni okuyun ve sorun çıkarması olası yapı ve tümcelerin altını çizin. Çoğu metnin tümünü okumadan analize başlamakta ve bu nedenle de, bir bakıma, hiç bilmedikleri bir metni analize çabalamaktadırlar.
Tüm reference sözcüklerini inceleyin;
Mr. and Mrs. Barnett have had a road accident. That happened 17 miles off London.
That = Road accident
Bilinmeyen sözcükleri çözümleyin;
Tek tek tümceleri inceleyin; (S V O; yan tümceler vs. )
Anında anlama durumuna engel olacak her türden tümce bileşenini belirleyeceğiniz özel bir işaretle […]vb.. saptayın.
Subject: ( )
The word, of nineteen letters in sum, was quite difficult to spell.
The word, [of nineteen letters in sum], was quite difficult to spell.
Bu alıştırmada yer alan üç metinden biri özgün, diğerleri ise bu özgün metinden yazılmış, farklı resmiyet dereceleri taşıyan metinler. Bu üç metin içinden dilediğinizi (istediğiniz herhangi birini) analiz edin. Anlamı çıkarmak için diğer metinlerden yardım alabilirsiniz.
a. Dr Marsh: “When one is “day-dreaming”, as the expression goes, one can imagine oneself as being exceptionally strong or outstandingly gifted. One could marry a prince or come into a fortune. And the only limit is our own imagination. Our plans, in these day-dreams, don’t have to be ones that would actually work in practice, because we can imagine getting what we want, and how to get it! Daydreaming offers such wonderful solutions to our problems that some people who can’t face up to the ordinary demands of life end up relying completely on their dreams. Unfortunately, though this may satisfy them mentally, it doesn’t satisfy them physically. And so they may end up needing institutional care.
b. Daydreaming. Popular expression for the indulgence in fancy or reverie while awake. In this condition, the subject may imagine himself endowed with exceptional capacities, e.g. unusual strength or remarkable skills. This may be accompanied by illusions such as marrying a prince or inheriting a fortune. The only limitation to daydreaming is that of the individual’s imaginative powers. In this condition, the imaginary plans of action need not be those which could be practically realized, since both the achievement of the (imagined) goal and the means by which it is attained are products of imagination.
One of the consequences of daydreaming is that, because it offers a potential solution to personal problems, it may become an indispensable defense-mechanism for persons unable to deal with the practical demands of life. The regrettable consequence of this is that daydreaming, while satisfying the needs of the mind, fails to satisfy those of the body. As a result, day-dreams may eventually require therapeutic treatment.
c. In the process of what we usually call “day-dreaming” we can imagine ourselves with unusual strength or unexpected abilities. We can marry a prince or inherit a fortune. We are limited only by our own imaginations. Our plan of action does not have to be the one which is likely to succeed in practice because we are able to imagine the achievement of our goal as well as the means to its achievement. There are such wonderful possibilities in this solution to our problems that some people, unable to cope with the practical requirements of life, fall back completely on it. Unfortunately it fails to give physiological satisfaction with its psychological satisfaction, so that such people may require institutional care.
Aşağıdaki paragrafları derste işlediğiniz örnekler şeklinde analiz ediniz. Bilmediğiniz kelimeleri metinden tahmin etmeye çalışınız. Başaramadığınız takdirde o kelimenin anlamının cümleyi çözebilmeniz için gerçekten gerekli olup olmadığını kontrol ediniz. SADECE gerekli ise ve başka çarenizin kalmadığından eminseniz sözlük kullanın.
Often people who hold higher positions in a given group overestimate their performance, while people in the lowest levels of the group underestimate theirs. While this may not always be true, it does not indicate that often the actual position in the group has much to do with the feeling of personal confidence a person may have. Thus, if a member holds a high position in a group or if he feels that he has an important part in the group, he will probably have more confidence in his own performance.
Like any theory of importance, that of social or cultural anthropology was the work of many minds and took on many forms. Some, the best known of its opponents, worked on broad areas and attempted to describe and account for the development of human civilization in its totality. Others restricted their efforts to specific aspects of the culture, taking up the evolution of art, or the state, or religion.
I saw by the clock of the city jail that it was past eleven, so I decided to go to the newspaper immediately. Outside the editor’s door I stopped to make sure my pages were in the right order; I smoothed them out carefully, stuck them back into my pocket, and knocked. I could hear my heart thumping as I walked in.
In recent years there have been many reports of a growing impatience with psychiatry, with its seeming foreverness, its high cost, its debatable results, and its vague, esoteric terms. To many people it is like a blind man in a dark room looking for a black cat that is not there. The magazines and mental health associations say psychiatric treatment is a good thing, but what it is or what it accomplishes has not been made clear.
The Incas had never acquired the art of writing, but they had developed a complicated system of knotted cords called quipus. These were made of the wool of the alpaca or llama, dyed in various colors, the significance of which was known to the officials. The cords were knotted in such a way as to represent the decimal system. Thus an important message relating to the progress of crops, the amount of taxes collected, or the advance of an enemy could be speedily sent by trained runners along the post roads.
There was a time when scholars held that early man lived in a king of beneficent anarchy, in which each person was granted his rights by his fellows and there was no governing or being governed. Various early writers looked back to this Golden Age but the point of view that man was originally a child of nature is best known to us in the writings of Rousseau, Locke, and Hobbes. These men described the concept of social contract, which they said had put an end to the state of nature in which earliest man is supposed to have lived.
The illustrations in books make it easier for us to believe in people and events described. The more senses satisfied, the easier is belief. Visual observation tends to be the most convincing evidence. Children, being less capable of translating abstractions into actualities, need illustration more than adults. Most of us, when we read, tend to create only vague ghostlike forms in response to the words. The illustrator, when he reads, must see. The great illustrator sees accurately.
Surveys reveal that most adults consider themselves “well informed about the affairs of the nation and the world.” Yet a regularly taken Roper poll that asks, “From where do you obtain most of your information about the world ?” has found the percentage of people who reply, “Television” has been increasing steadily over the past decade. The latest questionnaire found that well over 60 percent of the respondents chose television over other media as their major source of information. These two facts are difficult to reconcile since even a casual study of television news reveals that it is only a headline service and not a source of information enabling one to shape a world view.
The dusty book room whose windows never opened, through whose panes the summer sun sent a dim light where gold speckles danced and shimmered, opened magic windows for me through which I looked another worlds and times than those in which I lived. The narrow shelves rose halfway up the walls, their topes piled with untidy layers that almost touched the ceiling. The piles on the floor had to be climbed over, columns of books flanked the window, falling at a touch.
By voting against mass transportation, voters have chosen to continue on a road to ruin. Our interstate highways, those much praised golden avenues built to whisk suburban travelers in and out of downtown have turned into the world’s most expensive parking lots. That expense is not only economic – it is social. These highways have created great wall separating neighborhood from neighborhood, disrupting the complex social connections that help make a city livable.
There are basically two kinds of printer worth considering these days for use with a small home or business computer, both of them of the impact variety, that is, those which strike through an inked ribbon in order to deposit the impression on the paper. The first, and by far the most popular, is the dot matrix variety, which is cheaper and faster than the second type, the formed character printer. This latter type, characterized by its use of a “daisywheel” arrangement, while suffering from the disadvantages mentioned, as well as from a lack of ability to reproduce graphics, is the only kind so far which can offer quick changes of type style or size and which gives professional quality printing.
Amber is created when the resins produced by certain trees in tropical or subtropical climates undergo a transformation process that usually takes millions of years, and which is still not fully understood. The Baltic Sea area, now a temperature zone, probably holds the best- known and most highly-prized supply of amber, which is used in jewelry. In addition, in earlier centuries, magical properties were attributed to amber because of the electricity it acquires when rubbed.
The substance is also of great interest to scientists since it has been the means of preserving fossils, especially of insects, as much as 40 million years old. Amber varies greatly according to the place where it is formed, the amber in each location having its characteristic color, hardness, and even odor.
The Currier and Ives firm of lithographers was founded by Nathaniel Currier in 1934. James Ives joined the firm as a bookkeeper eighteen years later just after becoming Currier’s brother-in-law, and was made a partner in 1857. The pair showed an uncanny ability to predict what the American public would rush to buy in the way of cheap art, and literally hundreds of thousands of prints from as many as 7,000 individual pictures were turned out and sold from the firm’s shop in lower New York by street vendors and over shop counters throughout the country and even in Europe. Though in the course of time the firm employed some of America’s finest artists, artistic excellence could certainly not be counted among the firm’s real goals. Nevertheless, some time after it went out of business in 1907, the prints enjoyed new popularity as collectors’ items, the rarer examples fetching thousands of dollars in the 1920’s.
Recent research into whether people who are good at solving brain twisters are more intelligent than those who are not suggests that the “experts” make use of a special type of insight. However, not only do they appear to be good at this (choosing which elements to process, to combine, or to compare from the information given), but they are also clever at making use of “general” or prior knowledge and at monitoring their own progress with a particular problem. In addition, they appear capable of adopting as appropriate cognitive style consisting of a combination of impulse and reflection. Just what this combination is still mystifies the researchers, and so does the original question, to which their answer is a somewhat frustrating possibly.
The eradication of malaria has proved to be a much more intractable problem than ridding the world of what used to be regarded as a much more terrible scourge: smallpox. Even after decades of campaigns against the former disease, some 200 million people are infected annually, whereas fortunately the latter has now virtually disappeared. One of the more interesting approaches now being investigated to combat malaria is development of what would be the first altruistic vaccine – that is, one not aimed at protesting those who are immunized, nor at curing the disease, but one which would prevent carriers of the disease from transmitting it to others.
The fact that some naturally left-handed children are forced into becoming right-handed may even result in levophobia, an irrational fear of the left. Sufferers from this rare condition find their hearts pound as if a heart attack were coming on a result of their brains releasing adrenaline at the mere prospect of a left-oriented maneuver. They refuse to stand on the left side of an elevator, make left-hand turns when driving, sometimes even to look to the left. Psychologists believe levophobia will only disappear entirely when left handed children – a minority in all known societies – are fully accepted.
Since an increasing amount of the information we take in today has been previously recorded and is then presented to us through radio, TV, or cassette, there are obvious advantages in speeding up recorded material. Up until now, the problem in doing this has been that simply increasing the speed of a recording makes the pitch of the voice unnaturally high. Now, a solution of this problem is offered by machines that lower the pitch and break down speech into tiny fragments. With the aid of a computer, certain unnecessary parts of the recording are eliminated and the speech is then put back together, to reduce a thirty-minute broadcast by as much as 20% without leaving out anything.
Simply stated, computational linguistics is no more than the use of electronic digital computers in linguistic research. These machines are employed to scan texts and to produce, more rapidly and more reliably than is possible without their aid, such reliable tools for linguistic and stylistic research as word lists, frequency counts, and concordances. But more interesting and theoretically much more difficult than the compilation of lists, is the use of computers for automatic grammatical analysis and translation. A considerable amount of progress was made in the area of machine translation in the United States, Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and France between the mid-1950’s and the mid-1960’s, but much of the original impetus for this work has now disappeared, due in part to the realization that the problems involved are infinitely more complex than was at first envisaged. Thus, translation continues to remain as much an art as a science, if not more so.
Desertification, the loss of the soil’s biological productivity, occurs naturally to a limited extent. The pace at which the process has spread recently, however, is largely man’s own doing. This fact was highlighted by the great Sahel drought of 1968-73. The worst effects of this drought were caused by nomadic peoples who had earlier been forced by national governments to adopt agricultural and grazing practices that were not in accord with their traditions. In common with those of other nomads around the world, such traditions involved never staying in one place so long as to exhaust the earth that provided them with sustenance. When these people were not allowed to follow this tradition, the process of desertification moved ahead quickly.