Cümle analizini bir cümle üzerinde incelersek:
The student revolt is not only a thorn in the side of the president’s newly established government, but it has international implications as well.
cümlenin türünü (basit cümle ya da bileşik cümle) saptayın. Basit cümle ise S+V+O unsurlarını saptayın. Bileşik cümle ise yan cümle ile ana cümleyi saptayarak ayrı ayrı S+V+O unsurlarını saptayın. Esas yüklemi saptayabilmek en önemli nokta.
Cümle “not only … but (also/as well)” yapısı içeren bir bileşik cümle.
The student revolt is not only a thorn in the side of the president’s newly established government, // but it has international implications as well.
cümlenin okunması esnasında kafa karıştıracak türden her türlü yapıyı parantez […] içine alarak şimdilik gözardı edin:
The student revolt is not only a thorn (in the side of the president’s newly established government), but it has international implications as well.
cümlede bir başka yapının yerine geçebilecek sözcükleri (reference words) analiz edin:
…, but it has international implications as well. it = The students revolt
birden fazla yapıda farklı anlamlar taşıyabilen as, for, yet, since gibi yapıları mutlaka inceleyin;
Cümlelerin anlamına yönelik soruları yanıtladıktan sonra cümleleri analiz edin
1. I disagreed then as now with many of John Smith’s judgements, but always respected him, and this book is a welcome reminder of his big, honest, friendly, stubborn personality.
How does the author of this sentence feel about John Smith ?
_____ a. He dislikes him but agrees with his ideas.
_____ b. He considers him to be a disagreeable person.
_____ c. He disagrees with his ideas but respects him.
_____ d. He disagreed with him then but agrees with him now.
2. Concepts like passivity, dependence, and aggression may need further research if they are to continue to be useful ways of thinking about human personalities.
What might require more research ?
_____ a. Human thought processes
_____ b. Certain concepts
_____ c. Human personalities
_____ d. Useful ways of thinking
3. In order for you to follow the schedule set by the publisher, your paper must be looked over over the weekend, revised, and handed in in its final form on Monday.
What must you do on Saturday and Sunday ?
_____ a. Meet the publisher
_____ b. Examine your paper
_____ c. Hand in paper
_____ d. Look over the weekend
4. The real reason why prices were, and still are, too high is complicated, and no short discussion can satisfactorily explain this problem.
What word or phrase best describes prices ?
_____ a. Complicated
_____ b. Adequately explained
_____ c. Too high in the past, but low now
_____ d. To high in the past and in the present
5. This is not just a sad-but-true story; the boy’s experience is horrible and damaging, yet a sense of love shines through every word.
How does the author of this sentence feel about the story ?
_____ a. It transmits a sense of love.
_____ b. It is just sad.
_____ c. It is not true.
_____ d. It is horrible and damaging.
6. In the past five years the movement has grown from unorganized groups of poorly armed individuals to a comparatively well-armed, well-trained army of anywhere from 10,000 to 16,000 members.
What is the present condition of the movement ?
_____ a. The members are poorly armed.
_____ b. There are only a few poor individuals.
_____ c. There are over 16,000 members.
_____ d. The members are organized and well-armed.
7. The financial situation isn’t bad yet, but we believe that we have some vital information and, if it is correct, unemployment will soon become a serious problem.
What do we know about the economic situation ?
_____ a. It won’t change.
_____ b. It will become a serious problem.
_____ c. It is not bad now.
_____ d. It will improve.
8. The general then added, “The only reasonable solution to the sort of problems caused by the current unstable political situation is one of diplomacy and economic measures and not the use of military force.”
What type of solution does the general support ?
_____ a. Economic and diplomatic action.
_____ b. Diplomatic and economic action if military force fails.
_____ c. Only diplomatic action.
_____ d. Military actions in response to political problems.
Aşağıdaki cümlelerde uygun seçeneği işaretleyin. Ardından cümleleri analiz edin.
1. My discovery of Tillie Olsen was a gift from a friend; years ago she gave me her copy of Tell Me A Riddle, because she liked the stories and wanted to share the experience.
What do we know about Tillie Olsen ?
_____ 1. She is a friend.
_____ 2. She likes stories.
_____ 3. She likes gifts.
_____ 4. She is an author.
2. A few government officials even estimate that the war has created more than half a million refugees who need immediate food, clothing, and shelter.
Exactly how many refugees are there ?
_____ 1. Half a million.
_____ 2. Over half a million.
_____ 3. We do not know exactly.
_____ 4. Only a few government officials know the exact figure.
3. The Green Tiger Press believes that the relatively unknown works of great children’s illustrators are sources of vast beauty and power, and is attempting to make these treasures more easily available.
What is the goal of this printing company ?
_____ 1. To publish more children’s books.
_____ 2. To develop powerful stories.
_____ 3. To make children’s illustrations more easily available.
_____ 4. To encourage artists to become children’s illustrators.
4. Although he calls the $1,000 donation “a very generous amount, especially in these times,” the president expresses hope that the project will attract additional funds from companies and other sources so that it can continue beyond this year.
What does the president know about this project ?
_____ 1. It will cost only $1,000.
_____ 2. It is very special.
_____ 3. Special sources will support it.
_____ 4. It cannot continue without additional support.
5. Any thought that this new custom will remain unchanged – or in Europe will remain uniquely English – is ridiculous.
What does the author believe about the new custom ?
_____ 1. It will remain limited.
_____ 2. The custom will change.
_____ 3. Acceptance of the custom is ridiculous.
_____ 4. The custom will remain in Europe.
6. These robust and persistent sailors gathered from all the nations of Western Europe, and set out on the voyages that laid foundations for four great empires with no other power than sail and oar.
Why were these voyages important ?
_____ 1. Sailors came from many countries in Europe.
_____ 2. The voyages laid the foundation of western Europe.
_____ 3. The foundations for empires were laid.
_____ 4. Western Europe lost its power.
7. Young people need to develop the values, attitudes, and problem-solving skills essential to their participation in a political system which was designed, and is still based, on the assumption that all citizens would be so prepared.
What is a basic assumption of this political system ?
_____ 1. All the people will be capable of participation.
_____ 2. All people participate in the system.
_____ 3. All people should have the same values and attitudes.
_____ 4. Most people cannot develop the skills to participate in the system.
8. While we may be interested in the possibilities of social harmony and individual fulfillment to be achieved through nontraditional education, one cannot help being cautious about accepting any sort of one-sided educational program as a cure for the world’s ills.
How does the author feel about nontraditional education?
_____ 1. He believes that it has no possibility of success.
_____ 2. He doubts that it can cure the world’s ills.
_____ 3. He feels that it is a cure for the world’s ills.
_____ 4. He believes that it will bring social harmony.
Ettirgen yapılar içeren aşağıdaki cümleleri inceleyin ve analiz edin.
1. Detailed calculations find that the acceleration of an object under gravity depends on both the mass and temperature of an object in a way that makes heavier, or cooler objects fall faster than lighter or hotter ones.
2. The job of the typographer is to make the reading of the printed page easy and pleasant, and in illustrated books to make sure that, for example, the connection between text and illustrations is clear.
3. To be a good teacher, you need to make the material varied, interesting, and understandable to your students.
4. Although Miss Quested had not made herself popular with the English, she brought out all that was fine in her character.
5. Probably the child first becomes aware of causality when he himself causes things to move by pushing, pulling, and shaking them. Such movements occur at first by chance, and then the child begins to produce them intentionally. Thus one of Piaget’s children found at the age of three months that by kicking around in her cot she could make her dolls, which were suspended from a framework above the cot, move to and fro.
6. The mere fact that something has happened a certain number of times causes animals and men to expect that it will happen again. Thus our instincts certainly cause us to believe that the sun will rise tomorrow.
7. (In India) To send a telegram in the ordinary public fashion necessitates at least four separate but interrelated operations. First, you approach the counter, which is besieged by a shrilling, gesticulating crowd.
8. Gandhi was released from prison early in 1924. Almost his first public act was a three-week fast in the cause of communal unity. This led to a conference on unity, and once more he was in the centre of affairs.
9. Mrs. Thatcher has succeeded in making people believe in her economic “miracle”, which, as we have repeatedly argued, is largely an illusion.
10. As one delegate to the Cannes film festival put it: “Technically the British are always superb, but when you are watching a comedy show only one question really counts – does it make you laugh ?”
11. It is not surprising to find that success or failure in a task has some effect on the performance of that task itself, and may also affect tasks performed immediately afterwards.
12. Make-up does several things to the human face. It may disguise it or protect it from the sun; it may make it look younger and healthier, or it may label it as belonging to a particular social category.
13. A type of reading which necessitates careful attention to detail is proof-reading, in which the reader, in order to detect misprints, has to notice not so much on the meaning of what he reads as the exact shapes and order of letters and words in the text.
14. In any interaction which makes you anxious, you can learn to adjust your own body language and feel more confident. Try to avoid wringing your hands, as this conveys nervousness, or raising your forefinger when you speak because the implicit aggression will arouse an unco- operative response.